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John Gill of Barnwell Co., SC (Orangeburgh Co., Winton Dist., Barnwell Co., now Allendale Co., all SC)

Including early evidence that John Gill of Barnwell was the son of Thomas Gill. In my opinion, the connection is now incontrovertible.

John Gill of Barnwell born c1753 (range: 1750-65) died <12 August 1822, , son of Thomas Gill.

One may estimate the birth year of John Gill from the census as 1750-65, if 21 at the birth of his son, Thomas (born c1780), as <c1759; and if 21 at the time of the 1787 Winton deed, as <c1766, and from the 1771 hog stealing record as 1753 if he was 18 in that record. This man was old enough to have served in the Revolutionary War, at least by c1776, consistent with the records.

Wives (& women, the bashful should read no further!)

In the memory of my much beloved deceased Aunt Cleo Hodges Daley: "The Truth's The Truth!"

John Gill of Barnwell had a wife present in the census of 1790, 1800, 1810, and 1820, or at least a woman of an appropriate age.  No wife was mentioned in his estate proceeding in 1822.  Two wives are documented, Elizabeth in Mr. Andrea's "Winton deed fragment," and Ann in the 1786 deed.

  1. Elizabeth, wife of John of Barnwell, is listed in a Charleston deed fragment with the Winton place name (not a record of the Mississippi John Gill, as this deed is too early), and apparently John Gill signed by his complex mark.
  2. Ann was a wife of John Gill, son of Thomas Gill, named in a 1786 Charleston deed. In the lease, he signs "g", and in the release "jg." Evidence is given below that this deed is a record of John of Barnwell, who later signed his name.
  3. John Gill had an Illegitimate son by Mary Connell, who was not his wife (documented, 1802 deed).

It is possible that John of Barnwell cohabited with an Indian.  This would indeed be a grandmother of Allen Jerry Gill. Mildred Polk and W.T. Gill both vaguely recalled "something about an Indian grandmother" at the family reunion in 1983 in Ridgeland, SC, but there is no documentary hint for such an association.  Indeed, with his two documented wives and bastard by Mary Connell, it seems unlikely that he had time for such, or one could also contend that perhaps he was indeed well suited!  At any rate, I believe the "Indian grandmother," if authentic, and if in our Gill line, was most probably associated with old David Gill of Mattapony Neck, Virginia, father of James Gill for whom no wife is listed in James' baptismal record in Virginia (which was not typical of extant records there).

None other than our John Gill was found guilty of stealing hogs in 1769, along with "Deas" Gill, whom I believe to have probably been his brother ("Days" Gill), of Loyalist fame, later to be found in Milledgeville, Georgia.

(SCDAH on line index) Series Number: S145002 Volume [1st Year]: 1769 Page: 00101 ignore: 40

Date: 1771/01/24



Locations: /                               Type: /


Interpretation of the above record by FOC: I believe (no documentation, this is circumstantial) that this John Gill and Days ("Deas") Gill were brothers.  Days Gill was a stanch Loyalist (documented), and I believe Days Gill was forced to leave South Carolina after the war.  He settled in Milledgeville, GA, where he seemed to continually run afoul of the law, and I believe this is because of his Loyalist background..

Thomas Gill, first born son of James, and father of John, was in Winton Dist. in 1769 when he witnessed Richard Jackson's deed. Jackson signed over his share of Miles Jackson's land to John Gill born c1733 married to Mary Jackson. Records document that John Gill of Barnwell signed (by mark) his Revolutionary War Indents in Richland Co. on 30 August 1784, but he probably resided in Winton. Andrea's undated Charleston deed fragment places John Gill in Winton, and my date estimate is 1784 to mid 1785. John Gill was residing in Winton when he sold his father's land in 1786. John Gill probably lived in Barnwell his entire adult life.

(Charleston Deed of indeterminate date, from Mr. Andrea, not in the SCDAH index)

John Gill to John Foust in Barnwell but no date and badly torn, dower E. I think this is the fragment signed by mark with the Winton place name.  (a record of Mr. Andrea, who researched the original Charleston paper records)

Mr. Andrea states that he "never worked in the Judge of Probate files nor in the Register of Deeds files in Charleston ... Much could likely be found in these files on Gill, for from 1675 to 1782/85 all deeds, administrations, wills, Courts of Equity, the Judgement Rolls, Et.Al. are all in Charleston."

Our line is unequivocally traced to John Gill of Barnwell who died there in 1822 and whose estate was probated by his son Thomas Gill. Mills' Atlas, dated 1825, is ambiguous when compared to modern maps (to me). Valentine Gill either lived on what is today highway 301 where it crosses Jackson's Creek, almost exactly 3 miles northeast of highway 278 in the center of the present town of Allendale, or he could possibly have lived on SC road 39 where it crosses a branch of Log Branch or Jackson's Creek, about 0.6 miles northeast of highway 278. The true location is uncertain depending on whether highway 278 and 301 follow the roads on Mills' Atlas or cut new ground. The remainder of the Gill families, whom Mills labeled only as "Gills" resided either in the center of what is today the town of Allendale, or what is today called Siegling. "Gill's Cross Roads" is a named place on the 1966 Allendale County map, being the intersection of SC highways 53 and 47, which is about 4 miles due west of the center of the town of Allendale. This place name suggests that US highways 301 and 278 may not have followed the old roads. However, the intersecting roads on Mills' Atlas at "Gills" which runs to the Savannah River crosses Brier Creek precisely as does modern day highway 301, so my vote is for what is now Allendale proper. The SC Department of Highways could probably resolve this issue. This area was successively part of Orangeburgh, Winton, Barnwell, and finally Allendale Counties. Many lines of evidence show John Gill of Barnwell was the son of Thomas Gill.

For the record, the town of Allendale was originally on the banks of the Savannah River.  Sherman's cavalry  burnt it to the ground, and the town was rebuilt in the present location on the railroad.

It has been interesting documenting a connections for branches of the Richland Gills. The relevant records were in Sherman's path in South Carolina, said state being viewed as the primary cause and promoter of secession and the Civil War. My opinion is that many relevant transition records (Richland County to Allendale) were in the Orangeburgh Court House, which was, of course, burned in the Civil War. We have amassed extant evidence to establish this connection. I leave the judgment of our success at making that case to the reader. Resolution of the uncertainty has been accomplished by tracing every Gill no matter how seemingly remote, neighbors, and relatives, including North Carolina, Virginia, and an eye to Georgia. The best reasons for associating this particular line are given. I consider the evidence incontrovertible. The reader must decide if this is so. We have not yet begun to exhaust the resources that can be brought to bear on this issue, especially so now that the SCDAH has begun putting records on line. Time spent in Charleston on the original records would be productive, especially since we now know the relevant time frame and locations. In my opinion all of the Charleston records probably are not available at the SCDAH in Columbia. Certainly one must know precisely what to request at the SCDAH, and even then they often extract a different record. Some of their microfilm comes from the LDS collection.  Do not trust ANY "genealogy," LDS or otherwise.  Trust only the original records, and be aware that (1) there were more people of the same name than you might think, and (2) people moved more than we might expect.   The SCDAH now has an on line search engine.  Use those "hits" to request paper copies of critical records.

Based on extant evidence, we can now substantiate the connection of John Gill of Barnwell as the son of Thomas Gill, and a descendent of old James Gill of Richland. Some of the Mississippi clan also vie for this connection, and you must make your own judgment call as to our success. It is my personal opinion (FOC), based on evidence quoted and referenced herein, that John of Barnwell was unequivocally, and beyond the shadow of a doubt, the son of Thomas Gill who in turn was son of James Gill who was the first Gill who settled in Richland County.

We have gone through the three DAR applications on John Gill from SC and NC, supporting documentation present in the DAR Library in Washington, D.C., and the Mormon records in Salt Lake City. Such searches are never exhaustive! I think the Mormons may have copied everything, and it would take much longer than I have spent in those archives to locate it all.

Barnwell probate records are unambiguous that John Gill of Barnwell is the father of Thomas Gill born c1780 died c(1838-40?) who fled South Carolina in 1822, and this same John Gill of Barnwell is documentably the grandfather of Allen Jerry Gill. These Gills resided in what is present day Allendale County, SC, with these early records appearing in Barnwell, SC. The issue to be addressed here is the requirement to document proof of the father of John Gill of Barnwell who died in 1822.

John Gill who signed by mark

According to my estimate, John Gill turned 21 c1780. Therefore one would expect no legal records pertaining to him before that date which is consistent with the records, except for the  1771 record on hog stealing, in which he and Deas Gill (Days) may not have been adults.  If he was 21 in this record, then he was born c1750.  This would be a comfortable date.  The birth range that I have quoted, born c1759 (range: 1755-65), is based on records found before the hog stealing record.  I will double check English law to see if what age estimate of this record can be made.  Obviously he was at least a teenager to have been rambunctous enough to steal a hog!  My 1759  birth year would have made him only 12.  Therefore, I am going to change this to assume he was at least 18 in this record, and therefore born c1753, but perhaps as early as 1750, if he was 21 in this record.

1781. The following is contained in the South Carolina Accounts Audited Revolutionary War records under John Gill, Jr., #2830. Although the copies are good, the handwriting is difficult to read, and the numbers and wording represent the best of my ability. I point out to the uninitiate that "Jr." in this period only meant a younger man of the same name, definitely not a son of a man of the same name.

No. 62, N.320 Lel W, 16 August 1785, John Gill for 77 days as Lieut. from 1 January to 18 February inclusive and from 13 June to 15 July inclusive @35/ per day - for 27 days Waggon and Team from 1st March to 27th inclusive @80/. and 61 days as horseman and drover from 1st May to 1st July 1781 at 20/ pr day. Amo sg Ae Curry £303 15 n, Stg. £43..7..10 1/4. Forty three pounds, Seven shillings, and ten pence farthing Sterling. Ex'd P.McNly.
£23.8.0 3/
Mr. John Gill
77 days as Lieutenant from 1 January to 18 February and from 18 June to 15 July incl. @25/ per diem ... £134:15~
37 days Waggon & Team @ 8 of 108. ~
from 1 March to 27 March ared(?).
67 days as horseman a drover from 1 May to 1 July 1781, a 20/ pr. day. £1.1 ~
Case £303:15
St:g 43:7:10 1/4
Received 16th August 1785 full satisfaction for this within in an Indent Nr. 320 Lib. W.
Signed John hismark Gill, Test: Thos. Nicholls. This is his real scanned mark.

State of South Carolina. To John Gill, Dr. (this means debit, he was not a physician!)

To Service done in Col. Robt. Goodwyn's Regiment under Lieut. Col. J.P. Kirkland as Lieut. of foot from 1 the 7 January to the 10 of February both days inclusive 49 days @.
To service done by a waggon & Team in Col. Robt. Goodwyns Regiment from 11th Day of March to the 27 Day, both days inclusive, 27 days @
To service done in Col. Goodwyns Regt. as Lieut. of foot at Stono from the 10th of June to the 15th July both days inclusive, 27 days. I do certify the above account to be just and true. R. Goodwyn, Colonel.
1785. To Service done in Col. Thos. Taylor's Regiment as Horseman a Drover from the first day of May to 7's? day July both days inclusive, 61 days. 20/ £ 6S.
I do certify the former Chrsnsy Naty and horse duty Jun (hard to read). Thos. Taylor Col.
Before me Timy Rives? personally appeared the above named Jno. Gill and made Oath that the above Acct. Against the publick is just and true and that he hath received no part nor satisfaction for the above services. Sworn this 39th August 1784, before me Tim. Rives, J.P. rec. 18th Sept. John (hismark) Gill. (margin notation 2NN)

Although Mr. Andrea and Mrs. Hicks ascribe Richland County to this J.P., such notation does not appear on my photocopies of these records from the SCDAH. Was this J.P. Timothy Reeves (24 slaves) in Richland Co. 1790 census?, next to Thomas Taylor (70 slaves)?  The "I" is pretty clearly documented in the indent, and looks like Rives to me.  There are four "Rives" listed in the 1790 census, all in Richland Co.  I see no notation of Richland Co. in these accounts audited records, Mr. Andrea's claim to the contrary notwithstanding.  Accounts Audited record No. 62, N320 Lib. W. was examined by a "P. McNly."  Three McNealys are in the 1790 census, in 96 Dist., Beaufort Dist., and York Co.

The commander's names, Goodwyn & Taylor, place this man with the Richland Gills. It is a bit incongruous that he was both an officer (Lieutenant) and a horse driver, but he himself signs a statement that both are his records.  In fact, only men of some minimal wealth were able to possess a horse in these times and would have these skills.  Men as young as 17 are recorded in Peyer im Hoff's company.  If he was as young as 16, he was born before (1781-16), or c1765.  This is consistent with the upper limit established for John of Barnwell from deeds, c1766.  Andrea found (#43) in the Council Journal that John Gill was promoted to a Captain in the Militia of SC.  Andrea did not find a date for this commission.  It is possible that Mr. Andrea again confused a Chester Gill record for this promotion to Captain.  This should be checked carefully for date, and especially location.  Since there do not appear to be records of him for 1775-1776, he may have been on the young side, although his service as a Lieutenant argues for middle age, exceptional ability, or family connections. (Accounts Audited, file 2830 SCDAH, Columbia, SC)

We can definitively state his revolutionary war service from these records, as he would have filed a claim for everything possible to get the largest amount of money.  Thus, he served only in 1781 during the dates:

John Gill,  the son of Thomas Gill probably is the very same John Gill who enlisted 12 Mar. 1781, #25 as a private in Lt. Innes' SC Royalists, in Camden, and that same John Gill is probably the one who was in Charleston with Lt. Col. Innes, 24 Oct. 1781, Quarter House, SC.   It appears that several of his brothers were probably Loyalists in the revolution.  Could John Gill be one of those who changed sides to save his skin?   You may not like it, but it was common in this region.   His service may have been as a patriot Lt. 1 Jan - 18 Feb. 1781, private with Royalists 12 March 1781, while at the same time he "claims" to have used a "waggon and team" in service of the patriots, which may have been an invention to save his hide, or may be true.  Many served both sides to save their skins.  It was a cruel war.  May through July with the Patriots again, and Oct. at Quarter House with the Royalists.  This is entirely plausible!  There are no inconsistencies with dates.

We know that Days Gill (alternate spelling Deas, and other spellings) was a well documented Loyalist.  I have conjectured that both he and John Gill were sons of Thomas Gill.  I made that association before being told by Martha Holmes of an extant document linking Days Gill and John Gill!   (SCDAH on line index, Series Number: S145002 Volume [1st Year]: 1769 Page: 00101 ignore: 40; Date: 1771/01/24; Description: THE KING VS JOHN GILL AND DEAS GILL FOR STEALING A HOG, DISCHARGED FROM RECOGNIZANCE ON MOTION OF DEFENSE ATTORNEY (1 PAGE); Names Indexed: GILL, JOHN/GILL, DEAS/PARSONS, JAMES/; Locations: /;   Type: /; Topics: LIVESTOCK THEFT/RECOGNIZANCE BONDS/ATTORNEYS, LISTS OF.  According to my guessed birth years, Days Gill would have been 8-13 years of age, John Gill 12 years of age at the time of this record.  These are upper limit guesses, and they could have been older.  I have therefore adjusted his birth year assuming he was at least 18 in this record, and perhaps as old as 21.

1784 August 30, John Gill signed by mark his revolutionary war statement in Richland Co. (previous AA 2830 record). Thomas Gill sold part of the land he inherited from old James Gill in 1784. This record contains a plat dated 1768 which lists "Thomas Gill and John Gill, but the early date requires this John Gill to be Thomas' brother born c1733. In 1786, John Gill, signing "g" and "jg", and Ann her X mark Gill sell another part of this land that John inherited from his father, Thomas Gill.

1775 to mid-1785 (probably mid-1784 to mid-1785). Mr. Andrea lists on page 29, item #210 as "Gill deeds indexed in the partly master index: "John Gill to John Faust in Barnwell but no date and badly torn, dower Elizabeth." In record #29, Andrea lists "A fragment of a deed but no date and all description lost of a John his X mark Gill of Winton District with wife Elizabeth sold lands and Casper Faust Jr. was a witness. Casper (Gasper) Faust had land in the fork of the Congaree River according to Mrs. Hicks (July 1991 p9), and is shown as "Gasper" Foost (sic) in Richland Co. in the 1790 census.  Henry Faust was in Orangeburgh district as early as 1734 (SCDAH Series 5213184, Vol. 4, page 00155 - plat for Hans Spring.  Casper Faust had a lot in Saxegotha Township as early as 1745, Series S213019, Vol. 42, page 00256.). These may be the same deed. Barnwell probate and deed records show that this might possibly have been Elizabeth Banner Gill, although she probably married a much younger Gill. The mark must have been the same as the Accounts Audited mark, since Mr. Andrea claims to have identified this mark "all the way through." Since no record of this deed occurs in the Barnwell Court House (including Winton books) this transaction must have occurred before mid-1785. Winton District existed from 1785 to 1791. The Richard Jackson deed shows that the Winton place name was used in recording deeds in Charleston as early as 1769. A Christian Faust lived adjacent to John of Barnwell. There is probably but one deed here. This Winton record is too early for John Gill (removed to Mississippi) married to Elizabeth Faust.

1785. Barnwell County Plat Book 1 page 298 John Gill had 50 acres of land surveyed on Cowpen Branch near Morris's Ford on the "great Saltketcher" on 27 April 1785 which was recorded 12 July 1785.  This plat appears again in Barnwell Plat Book 8 p106 except that it now states that the plat was surveyed 27 "Sep" 1785 and recorded 12 July 1785, which is impossible.  Plats were surveyed before recording, not after.  The second plat is not a duplicate of the first and is more crudely drawn.  I assume the second is a copy, and the survey date is incorrect.  A "cowpen" was an enclosed cow pasture i.e. a fenced pasture.  Vacant land surrounded all sides.  A Cowpen Branch is shown on Mills' Atlas in Beaufort District in 1825, just below Goethe's Mills across the Salkehatchie from "Peebles," 14 miles south of the then Barnwell Beaufort line, about 15 miles north of Pocataligo. This apparently is not the same creek as it does not feed into the Big Salkehatchie.  This is the first chronological record of John Gill of Barnwell, other than Andrea's Charleston Winton deed, of which we do not yet have a copy.  There is no land grant nor deed for this land.  This plat is indexed in the SCDAH as an unclaimed land plat.  Either he was in Barnwell considering buying this land, or he lived there all his life.  He indicated where the survey was to be made, but never actually purchased it (cash was paid for State Land "Grants").  This unclaimed land plat clearly is associated with John Gill of Barnwell, as he lived near Thomas Morris, presumably after whom the ford was named.  On 11 August 1788 John Gill and Richard Creech were witnesses to the sale of a 14 year old female slave, Dido, from Thomas Morris to John Platts for £74 (Winton Will Book 1 p25).  Gill, Creech, Morris, and Platt were neighbors.  1785 is a lower limit for records in the Barnwell Court House itself, and the presence of this plat, though unclaimed, indicates that John Gill resided in Winton immediately after the cessation of hostilities in the Revolutionary War.


1786. Dated 24 Nov. 1786. Charleston Deed Book S-5 beginning at page 377 in SCDAH (Andrea stated p55) a lease followed by the release deed - (The SCDAH microfilm copy is exceedingly difficult to read. There are transcription errors here.):

From John Gill and wife to John Clayton, Lease: This Indenture made on the fifth of July in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty six and in the twentieth year of the American Revolution, John Gill and Ann his wife of Orangeburgh District in the State of South Carolina, Planter of the first Part and John Clayton of the District of Camden and the state aforesaid In a Holder of the other part wid? respostha? that the said John Gill and Ann his wife for and in consideration of the sum of Five? Shillings Sterling to him in hand paid by the said John Clayton on or before the Sealing and Delivery of this Parcel? Doth bargain and sell unto the said John Clayton all that Plantation or Tract of Land lying? at Richmond Pond Containing one hundred and seventy five acres Tract? lying in Richland County in Camden District bound to the South by part of the Tract of land belonging to Benjamin Everitt junr, to the West? Rivers? and Eastward? by land belonging to Col. Wade Hampton and the said John Gill and Ann his wife being Tract to the Deceased Thomas Gill (FOC: this is the remainder of the land that had belonged to James Gill on Gill's Creek) as enabled to Grant the said Premisses Together with all and singular the Houses, Buildings, Ways, Waters. Watercourses, Light? Eammonds? District? Profits commissions and Appurtenances whatsoever to the said Plantation or Tract of land belongings or anginear? appurtaining or recofter? Reposted? taken or known and enjoyed hold occupied Card or demand as pastors parcel or Member of the same and Revision and Revisions, Resas or and Remainder Ifmas and Profits of all The Singular the Possessions and every part and parcel thereof with this and every of their Appurtenances. To have and to Hold the said Plantation or Tract of land with all and singular other than B? misser? herein before mentioned or a instandaba? bushy? Bargained or Sold with this and every of the Right Members and Appurtenances unto the said John Clayton his Executors and Admins and assigns from the day next before the day of thereafter passeants for and during and unto the full Aden Term of one whole year from hence next and using and fully to be Compensated and Ends Yielding and Paying thenceforth unto the said John Gill his Heirs and Assigns the Rent of one Pepper Corn only on the land of the said Terms of the same shall be lawfully ???to the intent and purpose that by Tostia? of these Presents and of the Statutes of leasing itwas? unto? Possession the said John Clayton maybe in the Actual Possession of all and Singular the said Hereby bargained Ratified? with these Appurtenances and may be enabled to accept and take a Grant or Release of the Reversion and Inhaif? anso thereof to him and his assigns in such manner and for such All such? intent and Purposes as the said John Gill doth intend to Grant or Release the same by Indent useon lands as to bear Date the day or ast? after the day of the date of these presents. In Witness whereof the said Postesd? to these presents have interests and agreeably set their Hands and Seals the date and year first above His? Hand? John hisgmark Gill (only a "g" here) Ann her + mark Gill. Signed sealed and Delivered in the Presence of James Williams, Francis Bassett Recorded and Delivered the 24th day of November 1786.

From John Gill and wife to John Clayton, Release. This indenture made the sixth of July in the year of our Lord One thousand seven hundred and Eighty Six and in the twentieth? year of the Independent States of America Between John Gill and Ann his wife of the State of South Carolina Orangeburgh District planter of the one Part & John Clayton of the aforesaid state Camden District Inn holder (what does this mean?) of the other Part Witnesseth that the said John Gill and Ann his wife for and in Consideration of the Sum of One hundred Pounds Sterling to the said John Gill in hand Paid at or before the sealing and Delivery of these Presents (seems to be spelled Resents) by the said John Clayton the Receipt whereof the said John Gill doth hereby Acknowledge himself therewith fully satisfied content?ed and paid and thereof anofrom? way parcel thereof doth acquit Release and Discharge the said John Clayton his heirs Exs. Administrators and assigns forever by these presents Have Granted bargained Sold Released edaswish and Conforms and by these presents doth Hast? bargain sell Remir? Release and Confirm unto the said John Clayton in his Actual Possession being by virtue of a Bargain and Sell to him Hosoformato? By the said John Gill (Cray?) and (page 379) Ann his wife by Indent bearing Date the day last before the Day of the Date of this Presents for the Term of one whole year Commencing from the next? before the date of the said Indenture and by Terms? of the Statute for Transferring? Warrants? Possession and to the Heirs and assigns? of the said John Clayton forever All that Plantation or Tract of land now called Richland Pond containing one hundred and Seventy five acres situate lying and being in Camden District (space here in release) and bounded on the South by part of the same Tract of land now held by Benjamin Everitt and on the north by land held by Col. Wade Hampton and to the Eastward by the same and the said John Gill son of Thomas Gill Deceased being? Heir is enabled to Grant the Premisses? Together with all the Premisses? and singular the Houses Buildings Ways Waters Rassagen light? Commants? Profits, Commositia and Appurtenances? whatsoever to the said Plantation or Tract of land belonging or in any wise Appertaining or accepted taken known used or enjoyed hold occupied Leaved? or Domesast? as part parcel or Member? of the same and the Revoiistton? or Revisions, Remainder? and Remainders Ronhe? Ifries? and Profit of all and singular the Premisses and every part and parcel thereof with their and every of their Rights Members? and Appurtenances and al the Estate Right The Interest? and possessions Property claim or Demands whatsoever of him the said John Gill and Ann his wife of ise (I think the "of ise" is a mistake in the release) and for the said Plantation or Tract of land and Premises known Before? granted and Released or mentioned or Intended to be hereby granted and Released and every part and parcel thereof together and all Deeds Evidences and writings Touching or in any way Conoissing? the said Plantation or Tract of Land and premisses and any part there of only now in the Custody? or poss? of the said John Gill or which he can or may Come by in Law or Equity and True Copy of such other as concern the possession jointly with others Things to be made of with? or at the Request Cost and Charges of the said John Clayton his Heirs and Assigns To have and to Hold the said Plantation or Tract of land and Premisses in and by these presents Granted and Released or mentioned or intended to be hereby granted and Released and every part and parcel through with their and every of their Rights member and appurtenances unto the said John Clayton his Heirs and Assigns hath? only proper? Mam? and Behalf? of the said John Clayton his Heirs and Assigns forever and the said John Gill and Ann his wife for the mesetors? their Heirs Executors? or Administrators Doth Consent Promise and Agree to and with the said John Clayton his Heirs and Assigns and for every of them by these presents in the names and form following that who say the said John Gill and Ann his wife and their Heirs and from all and every other person or persons having or lawfully claiming on Estate Rights Title or Interest of in or to the said Plantation or Tract of land and premisses with the appurtenances herein before granted and Released or mentioned or intended to be hereby granted or released or any part or parcel thereof from by or under them shall and will from Time to time and at all Times hereafter at the Roadmater? Request and at the Cost and Charges of the said John Clayton his Heirs and Assigns make do Holns? abs ago Long suffers and Executors Cause or promise to be made done acknowledge loied? suffered Executor all such fees these and other Acts Matters and things Conyane and Aforesaid in the Law whosoever for the first has better and more effect act Conveying and assessing all and singular the Premisses here or before granted and Released mentioned or intended to be hereby granted and Released Conveyed with this and every of the Rights members and appurtenances to the only proper Use and Behof of the said John Clay(ton) (page 380) his Heirs and Assigns for every and the said John Clayton his Heirs and Assigns his or their Counsel lessees? in the law shall be reasonably advised or Devised and required And lastly that the said John Gill and Ann his wife and their Heirs (blank space here) said Plantation or Tract of land and premisses and appurtenances herein before granted or intended or mentioned or intended to be hereby granted or released and every part and parcel thereof unto the said John Clayton his heirs and assigns against himself the said John Gill and Ann his wife their Heirs and Assigns and against all and every other person and Persons whatever Lawfully Claiming or to Claim by from or under him or Gion? in either of these shall and will warrant and forever Defend by these presents. In Witness where of both parties have hereunto set their Hands and Seals The Day and year first above written John hisJGmark Gill Ann her+mark Gill Signed Sealed and Delivered in the Presence of James Williams and Francis Bassett. Received the Sum of one hundred pounds Sterling of the within named John Clayton full Consideration Money within mentioned John hisJgmark Gill Witness James Williams, Francis Bassett Orangeburgh District. Personally appeared before me William Buford a Justice for said District Francis Bassett one of the Subscribing witnesses to the Within Deed and Duly made Oathe on the Holy Evangelist that he saw John Gill and Ann his wife recorded? and Deliver at their Act in Deed for the use within mentioned and that he saw the Receipt therein Acknowledged and that he saw James Williams subscribe as witness to the said Deed. Sworn before me this 8th July 1786 Wm. Buford J.P. Recorded and Examined No the 26th day of November 1786 By.

The Bassett signing the lease and release could be either "Hannah" or "Francis."  However, the same Bassett witnessed the lease and release.  The first letter matches neither the "H" or "F" contained within the deed.  However, the Bassett who swears at the last to witness the deed, who is always one of the actual witnesses, is clearly spelled "Francis" with a recognizable "F."  Therefore Francis Bassett was the witness other than James Williams to both lease and release.

In summary, this deed states that John Gill, a planter of Orangeburgh District who was son and heir to Thomas Gill, sold to John Clayton of Richland County for £100 175 acres of land at Richland Pond in Richland County of Camden District - by the lands of Benjamin Everett, Sr. NE by the lands of Wade Hampton. I failed to find Andrea's statement that John Gill claims to be eldest son of Thomas Gill, only that he was his son and heir (which I believe implies that he was the eldest son). Witnesses were Francis Bassett (Andrea stated Hannah) and James Williams of Orangeburgh. Both resided in Winton District (to become Barnwell). Francis Bassett resided adjacent to John Gill, prior to the date of this deed, as evidenced by his state land grant and plat. James Williams lived with his father on the Edisto River in Winton District. William Buford, J.P. "of Orangeburgh," was also a resident, and a J.P. of Winton District.

This John Gill is unambiguously the son of Thomas Gill,  heir to James Gill, and all of the witnesses and the Justice of the Peace are found in Winton. The "mark" linked to John of Barnwell through Andrea's Winton deed fragment is of this same John Gill married to an Elizabeth at an earlier date. Note that the first mark recorded is a "g", the second a "jg". This could be a recorders error. The complex mark evolved into a recognizable "jg", then a signature. Someone taught him to sign his name during this ten-year time span.

Mr. Andrea also stated that this deed listed John Gill as of "Saxe-Gotha and Amelia," but I read it three times and these words do not exist in this deed to mine eye!  I think he meant the same person as he thought appeared in other deeds in those locations, but those deeds referred to other persons, if to a John Gill at all (see detailed section of the many John Gills). Mrs. Hicks correctly points out that these are mutually inconsistent place names. Saxe-Gotha was directly across the river from Columbia. Amelia was at the southern extremity of the Congaree. John Gill had to be 21 years of age when he sold this land. This places an upper limit on his birth year of 1786-21 = <1765 (i.e. he was born before 1765).

Witnesses and Justice of the Peace in this 1786 Deed

The civil and legal witnesses to the above deed where John Gill sells the land of his father, Thomas Gill, are each and every one found in Winton, Francis Bassett documentably before this 1786 deed. An Everitt was an abutter in the above deed, and several Everitt families lived adjacent to John Gill in Winton, Barnwell.

Francis Bassett: It is documented that Francis Bassett was in Winton before 4 April 1786 (SC State Land Grant Plats volume 11 page 35), which states Orangeburgh District, and the abutters, McKelwreath and Gillett, are unambiguous neighbors in Winton. Francis Bassett was there to show where the survey was to be done, in the spring of 1786. This places Francis Bassett in Winton at least eight months before the 24 Nov. 1786 deed of John Gill. Francis Bassett had this land grant formally approved on 20 Oct. 1786 (SC State Land Grant 378 acres Vol. 14 page 628), one month before the 24 Nov. 1786 deed in which John Gill sells his father's land. Francis Bassett is indexed 14 times in Holcomb's book on the Winton Minutes of County Court. A plat of the land of Francis Bassett, dated prior to the above deed, reveals that he was but one family away from John Gill. His name is listed among the adjacent neighbors of John Gill in the court records involving Josiah Wallace's fraudulent deed to his daughter Sarah Wallace Shields (series of Barnwell records in Winton Co., SC Minutes of Co. Court & Will Book I 1785-91, ending on page c112: "On an interpleader. Thomas Shields and Sarah, his wife, vs John Gill, Frances (sic) Bassett & Al." The fact that Francis Bassett was a witness to this unambiguous deed of John Gill, son of Thomas Gill, resided in Barnwell before that deed, and lived immediately adjacent to John of Barnwell is yet more corroboration that John Gill of Barnwell was the same John Gill who was son of Thomas Gill, who was in turn son of James Gill or Richland County. Francis Bassett also appeared in Winton Court with Mary Southwell, bastard daughter of Elizabeth Myrick and William Southwell (Winton Co. Minutes of County Court p60). These are again all neighbors of John Gill. Francis Bassett is also mentioned, without stating relation, I think he may have been a nephew, in the will of Wm. Bassett in Barnwell Co., Package 5 Case 16, dated 6 Feb. 1810. Francis Bassett served in the Revolutionary War.

James Williams: James Williams lived on the Edisto River (Barnwell County) on the home place of his father, Zaddock W. Williams. His father deeded him the 400 acre home place, plus tracts of 359, 261, and 157 acres, livestock and furnishings on 10 April 1802 (Barnwell Deeds Book D page 464, and another 655 acres in 1826 (Barnwell Deeds Bk. Q p 56). James Williams served in the Revolutionary War. The 1817 Barnwell will of John Williams mentions the Reverend James Williams, the other witness to the land sale deed.

William Buford, Justice of the Peace of Orangeburgh, likewise was a resident of, and a Justice of the Peace of, what was to become Winton and then Barnwell. He is listed on page 1 of the Winton Court Minute Book as one of the "Judges appointed and qualified" to establish the Winton County court. Same source top of page 2 lists him as attending Winton Court as "William Buford, J.P." He was one of the first Justices of the Peace (J.P.) in this area. He is indexed in Holcomb's reprint of the Winton Co., SC Minutes of County Court and Will Book 1 1785-1791 69 times.

The above records document that every person in this deed, except the purchaser of the land, was a resident of that part of Orangeburgh which became Winton District, then Barnwell County. later Allendale County.


(Further note by Andrea on this set of documents) "Check back to #55 & we see John Gill in Orangeburgh - also in Richland County we see John Gill Sr. & Jr. in #51 {I think this is the 1810 census pair} - Of these three John Gills, two could write and one could not -we know that Lt. and later Capt. John Gill, could not write as noted in #71."

Thomas Gill, son of John Gill of Barnwell, who we have now established was the grandson of James Gill or Richland County, was born c1773-1782 (from the census), and precedes the "Ann" deed in 1786, and therefore may be descended from her or Elizabeth. Extant records show that the John Gill married to Mary Jackson signed with a mark something like that of the son of Thomas, although there is no known extant original (may be in Charleston). They are not the same person. The fact that Mary Jackson Gill sponsored the baptism of the son of her sister, Sarah Gill Snelling, in 1754, places her birth year as before c1754-21, or <c1733. Therefore, she was married to a John Gill born at least this early. Stated more strongly, Mary Jackson Gill was not, and could not possibly have been, married to the son of Thomas Gill (John of Barnwell), as I thought at one time. A John Jackson, appears with John Gill in Barnwell records, whom I had at an earlier time identified as Mary Jackson's brother. John Gill appointed him, and a neighbor, as guardians of his illegitimate son, John Neilson Gill. However, Mary Jackson's brother, John Jackson, was born c1737 (Moss' birth year, which is a guess.), the son of Richard Jackson, Sr. Birth and will records (see Jackson section) show that it was this man's son, John Jackson baptized 27 Oct. 1751, Mary Jackson Gill's nephew, who appears in the Winton records with John of Barnwell.  Note that Mr. Cupit's  Missippi records have all of these people hopelessly confused.

Evidence that John Gill of Barnwell is the son of Thomas Gill

In my opinion this lineage is authenticated with six pivotal pieces of evidence:

1. John Gill was in Barnwell (which was Orangeburgh District, "South Part" at the time) 27 April 1785 to point out where the 50 acre plat was to be surveyed (which he never claimed).

2. John Gill, son of Thomas Gill, is listed as residing in Orangeburgh Dist. when he sold his father's land in the 1786 lease and release (deed),

3. Both civil witnesses to the deed are documented residents of that part of Orangeburgh Dist. that was called Winton, later to become Barnwell Co. (now Allendale County),

4. William Buford, Justice of the Peace authenticating this deed, was a Winton resident,

5. Francis Bassett, one of these two witnesses, was a near-abutting neighbor of John Gill, and he is documented as residing in Winton before the date of this deed, and

6. Andrea's "Winton" place name deed fragment shows John Gill, son of Thomas Gill, in Barnwell signing by his complex mark at an even earlier, albeit unknown, date, before circa mid-1785, probably after circa mid-1784.


Andrea identified John Gill of Barnwell as the son of Thomas, grandson of James, based on the fact that: "Since all of the contemporary John Gill men in Richland-Orangeburgh area wrote their names and this John Gill #72 as Lt. wrote his name with an X mark, I have been able to identify him all the way through." FOC: The #72 refers to an entry in Mr. Andrea's paper for Mississippi Gill descendants. Leonardo Andrea was a paid professional genealogist who resided in Columbia. Lt. refers to the fact that this John "X" Gill was a Lieutenant in the Revolutionary War. John Gill of Orangeburgh, who signed by mark, Andrea pointed out, was documented as the eldest living son of Thomas Gill, who was in turn the eldest living son of James Gill of Richland County. The dates and transactions of John Gill of Orangeburgh, the John "complex mark" Gill who served in the Revolutionary war, show that he was in point of fact John Gill of (Winton) Barnwell. The revolutionary war records and most of the deeds do not show a simple "X," rather something more complex, as shown above, and this clearly evolves with time. Mr. Andrea identified this mark with that on the Winton Dist. deed, which must be pre-1785 since it does not appear in the records in Barnwell Court House. Therefore, this Winton Dist. deed must show the same mark. Our association of John Gill of Barnwell with the son of Thomas has been made from original documents, elimination of other possibilities, tracking witnesses to documents, and evolution of mark into signature. Note that Mr. Andrea did not recognize that the John Gill married to Mary Jackson was a much older man than the son of Thomas. Mrs. Hicks was the strenuous promoter of this interpretation, and Mrs. Hicks was clearly correct on all points which I could authenticate, subsequently clearly documented by extant records.  I only wish I could claim to have been clever enough to see what she saw at the time, but alas, I did not!

Mr. Andrea distinguished three pre-revolutionary war John Gills on the basis of their signatures, or mark, and claimed to be able to distinguish the records of each. Existing records show, as thought Andrea, that John Gill of Barnwell (Orangeburgh, Winton, Barnwell, finally Allendale) was the eldest son of Thomas Gill, who in turn was the eldest son of James Gill of Richland. I emphasize again that the reasons for the association of John Gill of Barnwell as the grandson of old James Gill are different from those of Mr. Andrea, and based on much stronger evidence. Mr. Andrea made the association based solely on mark. The association is here made on the basis of extant documentation showing that John, son of Thomas, was already in what was to be Barnwell before he sold his father's land in 1786. The 1786 deed lists John Gill as residing in "Orangeburgh", and the witnesses were each and every one, civil and legal, in Winton, which was to become Barnwell (modern day Allendale).  I could find neither "Saxe-Gotha" nor "Amelia" stated in this deed as asserted by Mr. Andrea. Therefore, since Francis Bassett was already in what was to be Barnwell before this time, John Gill was also already residing in Barnwell Co., when he sold his father's land. Records in hand as of 2013 reveal that John son of Thomas signed first by a complex mark, c1781, perhaps never by a simple "X", then by a recognizable "g" and "jg" in 1786, then signed his name by 1788.


Winton/Barnwell Records of John Gill

John of Barnwell is the eldest known John Gill in the Winton, Barnwell, Allendale records, and he will be referred to as John Gill of Barnwell. There are no indications of more than one adult John Gill in the Winton, Barnwell (Allendale) area before the apparition in the 1810 census of young John Gill, Jr., a son of old Valentine Gill, and John Gill, Younger, a conjectured son of John Gill of Barnwell (I could have these backwards). These Gills lived in what is now Allendale County, which was at that time successively Orangeburgh, Winton, Barnwell, apparently within the center of the town of Allendale, except for Valentine. There is still a place known as "Gill's Crossroads" four miles west of Allendale (but recall, Allendale today is a new town after the original center was burned in 1865).

Every line of evidence points to John of Barnwell as the son of Thomas as discussed in detail above. To summarize the evidence for this crucial point again:

1. Mr. Andrea refers to "The Three Contemporary John Gills" during the Revolutionary Era, of about the same age, two who signed their name, and one who signed by mark. One of these who signed his name, married Agnes Dick, and probate records exist on him through his widow's will (Richland Co.) in 1810. He may have been the John Gill in Peyer im Hoff's company, although the indents suggest this was John of Barnwell. The second John Gill who signed his name was John Gill, Junior, son of Robert David Gill of Chester Co., who died in Chester Co..

2. John Gill was residing in Winton (Barnwell) and sold land there before mid-1785, signing by mark (Mr. Andrea found this deed fragment, although we do not have it.)

3. He had a plat drawn up in Winton District on 27 April 1785 before he sold his father's land, but did not claim the land in this 1985 plat. He was in Winton to have the survey done and plat drawn up. In this epoch, the "Jr." implies only that an elder John Gill was residing somewhere, either John Gill born c1734 married to Mary Jackson or John Gill, Sr. of Fishing Creek. It was not used at this time to mean that he was the son of a John Gill.

4. Andrea's original argument that there was only one contemporary John Gill signing by mark, who resided in Winton (Barnwell) after the revolutionary war.

5. One of the witnesses to the 1786 deed in which John Gill, son of Thomas, sells his land,  was Francis Bassett, who was documented in Winton before the 1786 deed which he witnessed. Francis Bassett had a plat drawn up for 378 acres on 4 April 1786, and was there to direct where the survey was to be done, in the spring, (SC State Land Grant Plats volume 11 page 35) and had his land grant formally approved on 20 Oct. 1786 (SC State Land Grant 378 acres Vol. 14 page 628), one month before the 24 Nov. 1786 deed. Francis Bassett was an immediate neighbor to John Gill in the extant Winton Dist. records c1787 still in Barnwell Court House. Francis Bassett is indexed 14 times in Holcomb's book on the Winton Minutes of County Court.

6. The other witness to this deed, (Rev.?) James Williams, resided on the Edisto River in Barnwell. James was given the 400 acre home place, plus tracts of 359, 261, 157 acres, livestock and furnishings by his father on 10 April 1802 (Barnwell Deeds D464, and 655 acres in 1826 (Barnwell Deeds Q56). James is listed on Mills' 1825 Atlas, probably in present day Bamberg County, near Briar Creek which feeds the Edisto River.

7. William Buford, the Justice of the Peace "of Orangeburgh" was a Justice of the Peace in Winton. Wm. Buford is listed on page 1 of the Winton Court Minute Book as one of the "Judges appointed and qualified" to establish the Winton County Court. Same source top of page 2 lists him as attending Winton Court as "William Buford, J.P." He is indexed in Holcomb's reprint of the Winton Co., SC Minutes of County Court and Will Book 1 1785-1791a total of 69 times, appears in several extant legal records alongside Francis Bassett, and served on the jury involving Wallace's fraudulent deed involving land of John Gill, Francis Bassett, and McElwreath.

To restate the last three lines of evidence, each and every civil and legal witness to the 1786 deed was a resident of Winton District.

8. The Winton District Jackson deed (Book N-3 p447 Charleston) in 1769 places Thomas Gill in Winton in 1769. In this deed, Richard Jackson signs over land that he inherited to John Gill born c1733 of Richland Co. married to Mary Jackson. This deed establishes a pre-revolutionary war connection between Richland Co. Gills and Winton, Barnwell (later Allendale). This deed contains the lease and release in which Richard and Loranna Jackson, both of Winton District in Granville County deed Miles Jackson's land to John Gill born c1733. This deed is witnessed by: Andrew Kersh (another neighbor in Winton), Th. Cramer, Mary Ann Cramer, & Thomas Gill before Thomas Young, J.P. for Winton. This deed places Thomas Gill in Winton c1769, or born before c1748, who can be no other than the first born son of old James Gill, in Winton Dist. c1769, providing yet another link. This Thomas Gill, in Winton District in 1769 was John's father. There is no other possibility for this 1769 adult Thomas Gill.

9. Andrea, who was quite familiar with genealogical research in this state and the records and totally disinterested, also reached the conclusion that this was the correct connection. This conclusion went against the desires of Andrea's clients, who paid for his research.

10. Also intriguing, in the 1802 John Neilson Gill deed, John Jackson, son of John Jackson who was brother to Mary Jackson who in turn married John Gill born c1733, was appointed by John Gill (along with neighbor Thomas Reiley) as guardian of John Gill's illegitimate son, John Neilson Gill.

11. Two documented sons of old James Gill resided in Barnwell and were immediate neighbors of John Gill: Valentine Gill and Richard Gill.

12. Thomas Gill's wife, Hannah Gill, was in Orangeburgh Dist. South Part (Winton) in the 1790 census.

13. James Gill's (second?) wife, Hannah (Goodwyn?) Gill, was in Winton in 1790 and 1800 and died 1810-1820, as evidenced by her signing the same mark, and leaving land to a grandson of Valentine Gill. She hardly would have left land to Valentine's grandson unless she was close kin, my undocumented interpretation being that she was Valentine's mother. It would have made no sense for her to do this if she were the widow of Thomas Gill, brother to Valentine. She instead would have given it to her own children. Therefore Hannah (Goodwyn?) Gill, if James Gill's only wife, may have lived to be close to 100. It is also possible that she was James Gill's second wife and mother only to Valentine and Richard, stepmother to John, and therefore younger than this.


I want to be very clear and give full credit to Mrs. Hicks, who urged me to track every witness and neighbor in the John Gill records, to resolve the ambiguity of all the John Gills in this time frame.  This approach clearly worked.


The Records

1786 continued. Arthur Jenkins, Mary Connell's father, was in Winton before the winter of 1786 ("Winton ..." Holcomb p4).   Arthur Jenkins was a wealthy land owner.

1787 - Francis Bassett, one of the witnesses of the deed in which John Gill, son of Thomas, disposes of his father's land, was appointed Deputy Clerk of Winton on 4 Jan. 1787 ("Winton ...", Holcomb p8). William Buford was a Judge and Justice of the Peace in Winton (pages 1 and 2 op. cited). John Gill of Barnwell served as constable of Winton County for one year beginning July 1787 ("Winton Co., S.C. Minutes of Co. Court and Will Book I, 1785-91", Holcomb 1978). Holcomb did distinguish "marks" found in the original Book, in his compilation, and John Gill is shown as always signing his name whenever there is an indication. I have also checked the original book in Barnwell on this point. John Gill, listed as a "planter" on his estate inventory, purchased 100 acres of land in Orangeburgh District, Winton County (later to become Barnwell County, then later still, Allendale County) from David Edenfield for 15 pounds sterling on 10 October 1787. David Edenfield "acknowledged his Deed of Conveyance unto John Gill 100 acres of land" (op cit. p59) on Wed. 17 Oct. 1787. This land was near Jackson's Branch (a creek) originally granted to David Edenfield 5 June 1786 grant book IIII p5520. When surveyed at the time of the original grant, the land was bounded by vacant land. The deed states land, together with: all houses, fences, orchards, trees, water, water courses, profits, etc., accepted legal form, not necessarily actual contents.

Andrea listed two State Land Grants to John Gill, V18, p76, 1787; and V20, p84, 1787, but these two references are to other people, and John Gill is not listed in the state land grant index. Either I missed something here or Mr. Andrea confused Chester Gills. Let me add this would have been very easy to do.  I did a complete history of the Chester/Fishing Creek Gills to sort out their records from ours.

Fraudulent deed of Josiah Wallace

In 1787 listed under "causes" (op cit. p74) the case of Gill vs Wallace continued. On Fri. 18 Jan. 1788 John Gill and others served as "Evidences" in the trial of Robert Shields (op cit. p72). On Tues. 6 May 1788 in the case of John Gill vs Wallace, the court found "Judgement by Default & the jury sworn the same as before to execute a writ of inquiry. We find for the plaintiff 10 D 8 & cost & interest till paid. John Wyche, Foreman" (op cit. p80). On 7 August 1788 in the case of Richard Aldridge vs John Gill, "the Jury prayed at the Plaintiff cost" (op cit. p94 #111). Thurs. 7 August 1788, "Ordered that Susannah Nicks be allowed 3 days attend. Aldridge vs Gill" (op. cit. p95 #76). (Same date) "John Gill vs Josiah Wallace. (-man (sic) Execution issued that Sheriff Robt. McLewrath vs Josiah Wallace) returned that he had levied on a Trass. Bassett vs Jos. Wallace) Negro in the hands of Thos. Shields & that sale was forbid. Ordered that the Sheriff go on to Sell the Property except it is replevied? according to law" (op cit. p95 #96).

(p37) Gill vs Wallace, Bassett vs Wallace, and McLewrath vs Wallace; A Negro named Primus, being taken in Execution the Property being claimed by Thos. Shields, Ordered that the Case be tried tomorrow to determine the Property (op. cit. garbled as here). On Wed. 4 Feb. 1789 "Gill & others vs Shields. Trial of Property. Verdict against the Defendant. An appeal prayed & granted on giving bond with Alex Newman & Absolom Causey Security in the sum of £50 to prosecute the appeal with effect to pay all costs & damages in case the judgement or verdict shall be confirmed" (op cit. p112 or 111 not sure which). (Following page) "On an interpleader. Thomas Shields and Sarah his wife vs John Gill, Frances Bassett & Al (sic) the Jury being sworn to wit James Gedden, Elisha Abston, Reuben Roundtree, Henry Woods, Benj. Blunt, Wm. Adams, Geo. Cope, Isham Jordan, Geo. Crossey, Jno. Platt, Silas Roles, and Daniel Philpot, returned a verdict. We find the Deed made by Josiah Wallace to Sarah Wallace now Sarah Shields, a fraud. Silas Rowls, Foreman, Wm. Robison, Wm. Buford, John Wyld.

This last pronouncement clarifies the court proceedings involving Wallace & John Gill. Josiah Wallace gave a fraudulent deed to his daughter involving the land of John Gill, Francis Bassett & others mentioned in the litigation. A slave was also involved. This proceeding establishes that Francis Bassett, one of the three witnesses to the 1786 sale of land by John Gill son of Thomas, resided immediately adjacent to John Gill of Barnwell.

On 18 Jan. 1788, John Gill paid a £3 fee for a Tavern License, with Wm. Weekly as security (op cit. p24). Holcomb has written "Dr." for the "ditto" notation, that Mrs. Hicks says is accounting notation for debit. These people were not physicians! There is a second record of the payment to the Court "For Tavern License" (op cit.).

On 2 August 1788 John Gill signed his name as a witness to a sale of 100a land on the "Saltketcher" from Richard Creech to Thomas Pulley. The other witness, Charles Boyles, signed by "B" mark (Barnwell Deed Book 1 page 274). On 11 August 1788 John Gill signed his name, along with Richard Creech as witness to the sale of a slave, Dido, (a 14 year old girl) from Thomas Morris to John Platts for £74 (Winton Will Book 1 p25). On 5 Nov. 1788 John Gill signed his name again as a witness to the sale of a slave between Thomas Morris and John Platts. Morris' Ford is one of the place names on the 1785 unclaimed 50a land plat. Perhaps he was pressured to learn to sign his name because of his duties as tavern proprietor. On 25 April 1788 John Gill paid 3£ for an "Ordinary Licence" (i.e. he kept a tavern).

All records from 1788 and later of which we have copies to date show signatures, even with a second illiterate witness below, clearly demonstrating that the clerk was attuned to the distinction (1788 August 2, Barnwell Deed Book A page 263; Barnwell Deed Book 1 p275 & 276 (signed twice). He signed again on 11 August 1788 along with Richard Creech on a sale of a slave from Thomas Morris to John Platts for £74 (Winton Co. Will Book 1 p25). The revolutionary war and deed records very clearly document the evolution of this man's complex mark into recognizable initials, and  finally into a signature. There is no ambiguity about this being the same person.  Someone taught him to sign his name.

1789. John Gill's tavern license was renewed in January 1789 for 1£ 10 S. and his "Ordinary" license was renewed on Tues. 3 Feb. 1789 (op cit. p107) and paid on 5 Feb. (£1 10 S. op cit. p37).On Fri. 6 Feb. 1789 (op. cit. p114 #36) "John Gill vs Manning Gore -Judgement by default. Judgement by the court for £4 with cost the property attached ordered to be sold (wording and punctuation as appears). On 6 May 1789 John Gill paid £1 10 S for a License renewal (perhaps Ordinary or Tavern op cit. p20). 25 August 1789 John Gill paid a Tavern Tax of £1 10 S.

In all of the above records after 1787, only a single John Gill is intimated. This is also true of the 1790 and 1800 census data. Two younger John Gills appear twenty years later in the 1810 census, identified on the basis of other data, and there is never a hint or suggestion in these data that there were two contemporary John Gills in Winton, Barnwell, Allendale, only others in Richland County (and the Fishing Creek, Chester County Gill family)..  Nonetheless John Gill, Junior, had 286 acres on the "Great Saltcatcher" surveyed on 15 September 1789 recorded 21 Sept. 1789 (two references to this: Barnwell Plat Books 4 p77, and 8 p410). The Junior designation in this time period was used for a person of the same name who was younger. In this case the elder John Gill was either that John Gill born c1733 who married Mary Jackson, or John Gill, Sr. of Fishing Creek, who died in 1797. From bracketed time data, it is certain that this John Gill, "Jr.", was, in point of fact, the same John Gill who signed his name, and who remained in Barnwell records until 1822. This plat bordered SW on Richard Creech, Rubin Golikely, James E. Myrick's land, NE James Moodey, & Newman's land, (-) on Malacha Powels land.

The John Gill, "Jr", of the 1789 land plat on the Great Salkehatchie, can be no other than the same John Gill who witnessed the 1788 deed signing his name, as well as the same as the John Gill (no "Jr.") who appears in the 1790 census in Orangeburgh, because the neighbors are the same. Those on the plat were: Jas. Moody, Mahala Panel, James L. Myrick, and Richard Creech. The latter two are known neighbors of John Gill of Barnwell. The "Jr." designation at this time only meant that an older John Gill existed somewhere at the time he had the land plat drawn up (either John Gill, Sr., of Fishing Creek, or John Gill born c1733). Mr. Andrea was incorrect about the "John Gill, Junior" in the Revolutionary War Accounts Audited. This was unambiguously the son of Robert David Gill of Fishing Creek. The "junior" designation never appears again after the apparition on the 1789 land plat. The records in sum are consistent with but one John Gill in Winton, Barnwell. The census never shows another contemporary John Gill in the area (only the two very young ones in 1810, who are accounted for). Always a possibility would be a new John Gill who wandered in, a possibility minimized by extant dated documents. Thomas Gill, and his (probable) brother, John Gill bc1733, may have had other brothers who named sons John Gill. There is no clear documentary evidence for such brothers. In my opinion, the link is unequivocal that John Gill of Barnwell is the son of Thomas Gill, as the records attest. Extant records place John Gill, son of Thomas, in Winton before he sold his father's land.

The 1790 census for "Orangeburgh District - South Part" (part of which was to later become Winton, then Barnwell County, finally Allendale County, shows only a single John Gill, no designation of Junior, and the pair of Hannahs. We unequivocally know that the John "jg" Gill son of Thomas Gill and grandson of old James Gill was in Orangeburgh District in 1786 from his deed, clearly the same person, as the records attest. The census was taken only four years after this deed. There are two other John Gills in the 1790 census in Richland County, one with 1 m<16, and 1f, and one with 2m>16, 2m<16, and 3f. None had any slaves. If our John Gill was born c1759, then he would have been c31 at this time.

In the 1790 census John Gill appears with 1 male >16, 2 males <16, and 2 females. He is only a few families away from David Edenfield and Elijah Gillett who as "high sheriff of Barnwell" appears in many family related deeds and legal documents. He is a little further away from one of the three "Redden" Wilsons listed (27 families away), and a significant distance from either Hannah Gill, the two of whom are separated by 14 families. These two Hannahs were, according to Andrea, the widows of old Thomas and his father James Gill. Note that the fact that both Hannahs were in Barnwell further strengthens the connection. Most of the family of old James Gill of Richland apparently moved here. The census yields a birth year estimate of <c1764.

Mary Jenkins Connell (below) bore him an illegitimate child, John Neilson Gill, before 1802, but was not his wife. If these census children include his youngest children and he married at 21 and we allow 2 years apiece for children, then he was born before 1790-(21+6)=<c1763. He may have had children that do not appear in this census.

In 1796, John Gill purchased 100 acres of land from Dempsey Philips on 26 April, deed recorded in Orangeburgh Book N5 page 386 (no longer extant). This 100 acres was part of a 560 acre grant to Dempsey Philips. John Gill resided on this land in 1809 when he deeded it to John Neilson Gill.

In 1800, John Gill appears with 2 m <10, 1 m 26-45, 1 f <10, 1 f 10-15, 1 f 26-45, and no slaves. It appears that none of the Gills in our area were large slave owners until many decades later, although Hannah sold three slaves to a Goodwyn in the Charleston records, and note the following. John is immediately adjacent to Hannah Gill, >45, who had with her: 2 m 10-16, 1 f 10-16, 1 f 16-26, and one slave. Since they appear only three families apart, it is likely that Hannah and John were closely related (as Andrea has asserted). His birth year estimate from this census is 1755-1774.

There were two John Gills in nearby Lexington County in 1810 (one 26-45, one 16-26, both with families). Presumably, one of these, John son of John, applied for the passport through the Indian lands in 1812, and the other may be his father. The 1800 census data lists two sons and two daughters. Thomas Gill, son of John of Barnwell, should have been listed in the 10-16 range but does not appear (typical evidence of census inconsistency!). Thus it is not clear if the two males under 16 are both of the 1790 males (one is surely Thomas), or if one of the 1790 males died and another was born. It may be that John's son, Thomas, was older than indicated in the 1790 census, and had left home by 1800. This is consistent with Thomas' oldest son (name unknown) who appears in the 1810 and 1820 census with an implied birth year of 1801-04, which, if Thomas was 21 when this first son was born, would place Thomas' birth in 1780-83. Thus it appears likely that the two 1790 males had left home and these are two new ones. The older daughter is probably the one listed in 1790, and the second is new.

Also in the 1800 census appear Richard and Valentine Gill (known to be brothers from deeds) on page 55 for the first time in this area (John and Hannah were on page 62). From deed records, these two brothers are sons of old James Gill of Gill Creek, the settler of Richland County. MS Hicks found a record where Valentine sold land that he inherited from old James Gill. The Gills all lived so close together, that Mills simply listed them as "Gills" in his Atlas! I believe they resided within what is today the town of Allendale. They also shared the same neighbors, etc. in deeds. It is of note that John Gill is 9 families from William Southwell, and 32 families from "Reading" Wilson, while Richard Gill was 273 families from "Reading". The reason for counting families is that it is known that Allen Jerry Gill's mother, Mary Wilson Gill, daughter of Reddin Wilson, married one of John Gill's children, Thomas Gill. According to Andrea's speculations, Richard and Valentine were first cousins of John, all descended from James Gill of Gill Creek, Richland County. William Southwell had a bastard child by Elizabeth Myrick, daughter of another neighbor. Given the age of James' father when he was born, it is within the realm of possibility that it was old James Gill of Gill Creek who took on an Indian wife. Apparently Hannah, implied Goodwin, survived long after him, so perhaps James had a first wife who was an Indian, from whom Thomas Gill of the Congarees was issue, then James married Hannah Goodwin later. This is all pure speculation.

Apparently John Gill was a scrapper. The Barnwell Sessions Journal for 1800-22, page 32, reads: "The State of S.C. vs John Gill on 5 November 1800 for "assaulting a constable in the execution of his office." (at age c35-40 for heavens sake!) A true bill was found, Joseph Vinci, foreman of the jury. This means a preliminary hearing determined that there was sufficient cause to continue with legal proceedings. On 31 March 1801 (page 39) John was tried and found guilty as charged, Jasper Trotti, foreman of the jury. On page 43, Friday 3 April 1801 "The court passed the following sentence in this case: that the sheriff should take said Gill immediately into custody and convey him to the Orangeburgh Gaol (jail), there to be confined within the four walls of said prison 39 days from this date. It is also ordered that the gaolers in and for said district do (add?) into his costs (?) the said John Gill." There is little margin for error here for this record to refer to a younger John Gill. The younger Johns are not yet listed separately in the census, and they appear not to have been old enough in 1800.

The Bastard Cousin in the Family Tree
(With no apologies!)

1802 In Barnwell Deed Book D on page 262 is found the following, recorded 6 March 1809: On 1 November 1802 John Gill, "in consideration of the natural love and affection which I have and bear unto John Neilson Gill son to Mary Connell of the state aforesaid (S.C.)" and also for other divers (sic) causes and considerations me the said John Gill, hereunto moving have given granted and confirmed and by these presents do give grant and confirm unto the said John Neilson Gill son to the said Mary Connell one tract or parcel of land where I now live containing one hundred acres being a part of a tract of land granted to Dempsey Philips containing five hundred and sixty acres and transferred to me the said John Gill by the said Dempsey Philips on the 26th day of April 1796 and Deed recorded Orangeburgh District by Jacob Kickenbaken in Book N5 Page 386 which tract or parcel of land I have grant and by these presents do give and grant unto the said John Neilson Gill son to Mary Connell all the above mentioned land with all and singular the privileges and appurtenancy there unto belonging or in any wise appertaining to the said John Neilson Gill son to Mary Connell and by his heirs for ever against me and my heirs, executors, and administrators and all and every other person or persons what ever shall and will warrant and for ever defend by these presents all and singular the said tract of land with the buildings fences tray water courses the said John Gill have feel the said John Neilson Gill in full possession by delivering to him turf and twig on said premises of the time of sealing of these presents in the name of the whole premises here by granted in witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand on 1 Nov. 1802 and in the 27th year of the American Independence. (s) John Gill. Witnessed Mily Rily, Ashford Jenkins, & Reuben Lain. "I do hereby nominate and appoint John Jackson and Thomas Riley as guardians to the aforesaid John Neilson Gill." (Barnwell Deed Book D page 262).

John Jackson was the son of John Jackson brother to Mary Jackson who married the elder John Gill born c1733. It seems that John Gill has appointed a relative of his, plus Mary Connell's brother in law, Thomas Riley, as guardians to his illegitimate son. The meaning of this deed escaped me for over ten years, until I obtained the records which immediately follow.

Another Barnwell deed involving the woman Mary Jenkins Connell clarifies the above deed. Deed, Book E page 198 is crystal clear: "I Brinkly Corbett of South Carolina, a planter, in consideration of the natural love and affection which I have and bear unto Mary Connell and also for other good causes me here unto moving do give grant and unto the said Mary Connell one Sorrell mare, six cows, beds and furniture to have and to hold, etc. The Sorrel Mare, Cows, and feather beds with all future increase (indecipherable) unto the said Mary Connell, etc., to the only preyser (?) side and behoof (?) of the said Mary Connell, her executors, etc. - I Brinkly Corbett have put the said Mary Connell in full possession by deliverance of the above named (repeated). But in case the said Mary Connell should die before her daughter, Peggy Corbett, that there and in that case I do give the above Sorrel Mare, six cows, and two feather beds to Peggy Corbett, her heirs and assigns, etc. 13 Feb. 1810. (s) Brinkly hisXmark Corbett. Witnessed by T. Riley and John Gill. Personally came before me etc. John Gill and said that he saw the deed of gift etc. & that he saw Thomas Riley subscribe as a witness. 29 March 1810 (s) John Gill.

Book E page 200 records that Brinkly Corbett of Barnwell Dist. (planter) for $300 paid by Mary Connell of Barnwell District, do sell to the said 500 acres on the Salkehatchie, being part of a tract of land to me Brinkly Corbett and Phillip Smith together. Witness T. Riley and John Gill.

These deeds involving Mary Connell make it clear that John Neilson Gill was her illegitimate son by John Gill. She lived in Barnwell District close to John Gill. Probably, John Gill appointed his friends and neighbors, John Jackson (John Jackson was the nephew of the John Gill born c1733 who married Mary Jackson) and Thomas Riley, as guardians for John Neilson Gill because he still had a wife at home in the 1800 and 1810 censuses! Mary Connell seems to have been one of those Barnwell district females of ill repute. One would think there would have been a deficit of males so soon after the Revolutionary War, but it is well documented that ethics and morals suffer immediately following the atrocities associated with any war, and it appears that the latter dominated. From the wording, John Neilson Gill did not reside with John Gill, but instead with Mary Connell. John N. Gill is likely not the John Gill, Younger, in the 1810 census. This John Gill, Younger, probably was a younger son of John Gill of Barnwell. John N. Gill served in the War of 1812. It is absolutely unequivocal that this is our John Gill, and it is unequivocal that his son Thomas Gill probated his estate in 1822, so what did son Thomas have to say about this bastard? Apparently she also had, shall we say, "relations" with not only John Gill, but also with Brinkly Corbett, and some kind of relationship with the father of James Brown, although James Brown could have married one of her daughters (yeah, sure).


Family of Mary Connell Arthur Jenkins died c1802 (Genkins) of Barnwell Co. estate administered by Miles Riley 1 Dec. 1802 bundle 5 package 4 4-5. Will of Elizabeth Genkins 15 Dec. 1802, husband Arthur. Sons: Joseph Parker, Ashford, Son in law Miles Riley. Executors Miles Riley, Thomas Riley.

Probate records of Arthur Jenkins: 2 May 1803 Miles Riley petitions to sell the estate to make a division as all heirs are of age. Inventory by George Kirkland, Stephen Roberts, Luke Ayer 26 April 1803: negro man Fasha? $400, negro man Rssia? $350, negro woman Cloe $350, negro boy Apsiu? $200, 50 head stock cattle 5/head $250, 1 bay mare ... ~$1675.

Deed book E page 394: We: Elias Jenkens, Ashford Jenkens, Valentine Thomas, Mary Connell, Joseph Parker, and Lewis Thomas, of Barnwell Dist. for $500 paid by Thomas Riley, Planter, on Great Saltketcher 3 miles below Moy's Bridge, sell 540 acres being part of tract containing 640 acres granted to Richard Creech and Wm. Buford on 2 Oct. 1786 and transferred from Wm. Buford to Arthur Jenkens which we hold as our lawful property being heirs to the estate of Arthur Jenkins (deceased). 12 Aug. 1808, signed Elias his X mark Jenkens, Joseph Parker, Mary her X mark Connell, Lewis Thomas, Valentine his X mark Thomas, Ashford Jenkins. Witnesses: John Gill, Eli Myrick, James his X mark Brown. Recorded 1 July 1811.

Children (some could be grandchildren):

  1. Elias Jenkens born <1787
  2. Ashford Jenkins b<1780 deeded land by his father in 1801 Book 2 page 97 4/4/1801, 5/4/1801 £20 685 acres on the Saltketcher
  3. dau. born <1779 married Thomas Riley, Thos. Riley deeded land by Jenkins Book2 p99 10/10/1800, 5/4/1800 £300 590 acres on Green Savannah.
  4. dau. born <1787 married Valentine Thomas
  5. Mary Jenkins born <1787 married ___ Connell dead by 1808, appears in the 1808 deed above without mention of a husband. Mary her X mark Connell. Wit: Wm. R. Halford, Cornelius K. Brown. Barnwell Book D page 260: "I Mary Connell of South Carolina in consideration of natural love and affection to Cornelius Brown, my grandson, son to James Brown, I give to the said Cornelius Brown a Roan Mare about four years old, also two cows and a calf, dated 5 May 1808, recorded 3 June 1809. Mary Connell signed by a complicated mark. Witnesses were Moses Murphy and Stephen Creech. Book N p54, I Mary Connell of Barnwell Dist. for $75 paid by Samuel O'Neal sell 72 acres part of 1285 acres granted to Arthur Genkins on 7 July 1788 by Thomas Pickney which land I claim as one of heirs of estate of Arthur Genkins. Mary her X mark Connell. Witnesses John Gill, John N. Gill, 9 Dec. 1815 (John N. Gill born <1784). Book V p358 I Mary Connell for $250 paid by John Conly planter sell 500 acres on the west side of the Saltcatcher, part of tract granted to Brinkly Corbet and Phillip Smith 12 Aug. 1830.
  6. dau. born <1774 married Joseph Parker sold land by Jenkins Book J p429 8/18/1795, 7/7/1817 £10 128 acres on Jackson's Branch.
  7. dau. born <1787 married Lewis Parker
  8. Elizabeth Jenkins born <1781 married Miles Riley before 1802.


1808 Oct. 17 Elijah Gillett vs Thomas Hardy and John Gill judgement to plantiff $39 & interest from 1 Jan. 1808 (Barnwell Common Pleas Journal 1800-1811 page 221). James Myrick and John Jackson were among the jurors.

In 1810, the Gills are spread from page 69 to 76 of the census. John Gill, Sr. (herein referred to "elder" as discussed above, who died in 1822) is on page 74 with: 1 m 10-16, 1 m 16-26, 1 m >45, 1 f <10, 1 f >45, and no slaves. On the same page is James Gill, 26-45, with 2 f <10, 1 f 16-26; and also John Gill "Younger" (note, this one is not indexed, if you check it). This James may be the son of John of Barnwell, or Valentine Gill (Barnwell Deed Book B, p82, Richard Gill states: "for natural love and affection I have of my brother Valentine Gill's three sons, John, Valentine, and James). The census ages probably may be interpolated to yield ages of about 26 for James and his wife. John Gill, Jr. appears on page 69, the elder Valentine Gill (age >45) on page 73, & John of Barnwell's son, Thomas, on page 76. Note again that the term "Junior" usually meant a younger person of the same name in this era, specifically NOT a son of Senior. The latter designation has only come into usage in more modern times. One of these younger John Gills is the son of John of Barnwell & one is the son of Valentine.

The 1810 census indicates that the eldest daughter of John of Barnwell, born before 1790, had married by 1810, and either two new daughters had been born or one new one and the new 1800 daughter (2) remained in the "under 10" category.

In 1820, John Gill of Barnwell, Thomas Gill, & Elizabeth Gill, old Valentine Gill's widow (>45 in 1810 census), all appear on census page 11, & James Gill appears on page 15. John of Barnwell is listed as >45, with one son 16-26, 1 female 10-16, and 1 female >45, presumably his wife. It would appear that there were two widows in Elizabeth's household (Elizabeth is listed with 1 m <10, 1 f <10, 1 f 10-16, and 2 females 26-45). Valentine is a surname of the Allendale County area, & may imply an earlier intermarriage between Gills and Valentines either in Richland County or Virginia.  Valentine Gill was still in Richland Co. in the 1790 census. Valentine Gill died before 6 Oct. 1820. Interestingly Valentine's widow, Elizabeth, had her letter of administration of his estate revoked on 15 April 1825 "on complaint of those who had served as securities," Thomas Riley and Josiah Allen who had posted $1500 as security (Barnwell Ordinary Records, Minutes, 1819-38, p12).  Josiah Allen was only one family away from Valentine Gill in the 1810 census, they were close neighbors, as was Thomas Riley. The census proximity suggests that Valentine was related to John Gill of Barnwell, and I have inferred that they were first cousins.

The 1820 census shows two young John Gills the same age group as Thomas Gill as well as the older John of Barnwell. John Gill & others won a suite against Matthew Moye on a note, Patterson as atty, 1820, for $85 (Barnwell unmarked book p144).

Apparently John Gill's last wife died after the 1820 census, which was taken in the summer, and before his death in 1822.

John Gill of Barnwell died before 12 August 1822 at about the age of 74, when his son, Thomas, was appointed administrator of his estate. Although a wife (or other elderly female) appears in the 1820 census, no mention is made of her in the court records, so she presumably was dead by the summer of 1822. Was she perhaps an Indian who was not considered suitable to inherit John's property (what little he had left after Mary Connell finished with him!)? Since notice was posted at "Arnon" Church it is implied that John the elder was a member of that body. This appears to be a forerunner of Mount Arnon Church, which is stated in its history as being formed June 1839, although the original elders of Mt. Arnon Church were the same people who lived in the immediate vicinity of John of Barnwell. The citation states that notice was published in Arnon Church by "Mr. James Prescott, preacher of the gospel."

Apparently John N. Gill, the bastard, was still around just prior to the death of old John Gill. John N. Gill ran afoul of the law for disorderly conduct (Barnwell Sessions Journal) and had his land seized. His 260 acres, consisting of the estate on which his father had resided, was sold by the sheriff to Matthew Moye for $130 on 1 Feb. 1821, recorded 25 April 1823 (Deed Book O p164).

The census data may be taken to indicate that John had (including Thomas Gill) between 2 and 4 sons (2 born before 1790, and perhaps 2 born 1790-1800); and 2 or 3 daughters (1 born before 1790, 1 born 1790-1800, and perhaps one born 1800-1810). Therefore this seems to have been a small family. Further, it seems that John Gill, son of John Gill of Barnwell, (presumably "Younger" of the 1810 census?) probably left the area, or alternately died, before Thomas left in high gear in 1822! John N. Gill may have left when his land was seized in 1821. From Andrea's records, we know that many of our Gill clan moved west (at least as far as Mississippi and Louisiana). Thus the majority of our family seems to have ceased its Barnwell connections about 170 years ago (in 1991)!  John N. Gill next shows up in Columbia County, GA.


John's children are difficult to identify. Only Thomas Gill and John Neilson Gill are documented. There is not even a male in the census who is present in the 1790 and 1800 censuses and who disappears in 1810, when Thomas is listed separately.  Perhaps the 1800 census missed Thomas while he was single, not uncommon.  Perhaps one way to interpret the census data is to assume that Thomas and John, both sons of John Gill of Barnwell, do NOT appear listed as children of John of Barnwell in the 1800 census.  This implies that they were, say, 18 or older in 1800, or that their birth year was close to the lower limit set by the 1790 census (1773).  Therefore, we may assume that both sons John and Thomas were born early enough to have left home by 1800, despite their ages listed in the 1810 census.  This is also consistent with the 1780 birth year arrived at for Mary Wilson, wife of Thomas Gill. Perhaps Thomas and Mary Gill lied about their ages for some reason. Perhaps Mary was proud of living to a ripe old age, when she reached it, and told her true age! Julia May Gill Peebles was caught in such a trap, lying about her age to get a job, then having to work past her retirement age. In all likelihood, he was older than she. Written records to clarify the children beyond what is listed here may be difficult to find, but try nonetheless.

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Copyright ©1996-2013, Frank O. Clark, Ph.D.. These documents may be freely used for private purposes, and included in your own genealogy. However, this document is copyrighted and may not be sold, nor given to anyone who may attempt to derive profit from same.